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The image is upside down (right atrium up) to show the extent of apical displacement of the septal leaflet. 3DE volume rendering (en face view from the ventricle) to show the morphological ...

Date : 05/12/2012
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In this case, orifice planimetry by 3DE can provide important information on the severity of both valvular and subvalvular narrowings. 2D (left) and color Doppler (right) echocardiographyic ...

Date : 05/12/2012
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VLVOT or VTILVOT are measured using a pulsed wave Doppler (PW) from an apical approach (generally the apical 5-chamber view) in which the ultrasound beam can be aligned with the direction of the ...

Date : 11/12/2013
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Prosthesis-patient mismatch (PPM) occurs when the effective orifice area (EOA) of a normally functioning prosthesis is too small for the patient’s body size and should be raised in the presence ...

Date : 11/12/2013
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Cardiac CT The aim to evaluate the coronary anatomy and to capture frozen images of the coronary tree has resulted in the development of image technique with a high spatial resolution. CT uses the ...

Date : 11/12/2013
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A normal opening aortic valve is not obstructive to blood flow resulting in a transvalvular flow which is laminar with a peak velocity below the 2 m/sec. When the aortic valve becomes stenotic and ...

Date : 11/12/2013
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3D transoesophageal echocardiography (3D TOE) 3D TOE enables superior spatial resolution and images of unprecedented quality, which allow a detailed characterization of aortic valve morphology. 3D ...

Date : 05/12/2012
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Low-flow Low- gradient (LFLG) aortic stenosis in patients with a depressed LV ejection fraction Severe aortic stenosis is defined as an aortic valve effective orifice area (AVA) ≤ 1.0 cm2 or ≤ ...

Date : 11/12/2013
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Recent evolution of TOE probes into a 3D fully-sampled matrix array capable of allowing real-time acquisition and online display of volume rendered 3D images of the aortic valve has renewed the ...

Date : 05/12/2012
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There is also severe calcification of both the mitral and the aortic valves Parasternal long axis view with the zoom mode on the mitral and aortic valves: severe calcification of both valves with ...

Date : 11/12/2013